When discussing brushless motors within the industry, several technical terms and concepts are commonly used to describe their characteristics and operation. Here are some industry words and phrases associated with brushless motors:
- Stator: The stationary part of a brushless motor that contains the coils of wire through which the current flows to create a magnetic field.
- Rotor: The rotating part of a brushless motor, often equipped with permanent magnets, that interacts with the stator’s magnetic field to produce motion.
- Commutation: The process of switching the current direction in the motor’s coils to maintain the rotor’s movement. In brushless motors, electronic commutation is used instead of physical brushes.
- Hall Sensors: Sensors located in the stator that detect the position of the rotor magnets. This information is used for proper timing of the commutation process.
- Back EMF (Electromotive Force): The voltage generated in the coils of the stator as a result of the rotor’s motion. It is used to determine the rotor’s position.
- Phase: In a brushless motor, the coils in the stator are organized into phases, typically three, which are sequentially energized to generate a rotating magnetic field.
- Sensorless Control: A technique that eliminates the need for Hall sensors by using algorithms to estimate the rotor’s position based on the back EMF.
- Kv Rating: A measure of the motor’s speed constant. It represents the RPM (rotations per minute) the motor will turn when 1V is applied with no load.
- Torque: The rotational force generated by the motor. Brushless motors often offer high torque-to-weight ratios.
- ESC (Electronic Speed Controller): The device that controls the power input to the brushless motor by adjusting the timing and sequence of the phase currents.
- PWM (Pulse Width Modulation): The method used by ESCs to control the motor speed by varying the duty cycle of the voltage pulses delivered to the motor.
- Cogging: Small, discrete movements or steps that can occur when starting a brushless motor due to its magnetic configuration. This can be minimized with advanced control algorithms.
- Efficiency: Brushless motors are known for their high efficiency due to the absence of brushes and reduced friction.
- Brushless Motor Controller: The electronic circuitry that manages the commutation and power delivery to the brushless motor, often integrated into ESCs.
These terms provide a glimpse into the technical aspects of brushless motors and their operation in various applications.